Crystal production is a unique historic technique,
which has not much changed during five thousand
years of the world glassmaking. Glass (crystal
is a variety of glass) is a unique material, invented
due to the genius of human reason. As well as
in prehistoric time, the basic components of glass
are natural raw materials whose mixture is boiled
in special stoves at the temperature of 1500 degrees
C. Then hot, melted glass is worked by hand, lung-blowing
or with the help of a mould. People use different
methods of working glass and crystal.
Crystal is a variety of glass. Pure, transparent
and high quality glass can be named crystal irrespective
of its composition.
Varieties of crystal:
lead is replaced by barium
was invented by the scientist Rovencroft
in London 350 years ago. Since then it has been
widely practised all over the world. It contains
from 6% to 36% of lead. International standard
New crystal (without lead).
Now this crystal is being developed by Americans.
They propagandize the harmfulness of lead crystal
to compete and outdoor traditional European
firms from the world market. However, their
propaganda has nothing to do with reality.
is boiled at the temperature of about 1500 degrees
C. During boiling complicated chemical and physical
processes take place, and complex, rather steady
compounds are formed. Alongside with quartz sand
and lead, some special components are added to
increase the chemical firmness of crystal. Crystal
is not corroded by acid, alkali and alcohol liquids,
and so it is absolutely harmless.
German der Hutte (hut, tent, mountain factory,
furnace). It's possible that this word may have
more ancient origin from Latin 'gutta' (drop).
The largest glass factories in Western Europe
and in the Ukraine were named 'Guta'. In modern
meaning, guta is the part of a glass enterprise
where glass is boiled in glass-making furnaces
and workers make glass items by hand.
Guta working is the method
of forming items by some special manual methods
of working hot glass: blowing (with the help of
a mould and without it), modelling, alloying,
hot finishing of brim, decoration with colour
layers, making patterns of colour spots, lines
or bands, and other different operations. These
operations are made just near a glass-blowing
Guta items, guta glass:
items, formed with
the help of guta working (i.e. blowing, modelling);
items, decorated with
the help of guta working.
include a glass-blowing tube, scissors for cutting
hot glass, a nipper, tweezers, a rolling-press.
Guta glass is blown, formed and decorated with
the help of these tools. The temperature of glass
paste during its forming is about 1000 degrees
C. Professional skills are acquired by the method
of studying. Guta technique is the most ancient
glass technology, invented about 5000 years ago.
Crystal is softer than simple glass, therefore
the traditional processing for crystal is diamond-cutting.
It is made by hand with the help of fast rotating
circles made of synthetic diamond. The next stage
is chemical polishing with the help of hot acids.
Crystal is also decorated with engraving. Upper
layers of glass are removed with the help of little
circles. The engraved pattern is not polished.
items: are moulded with the help of a
glass-blowing tube and decorated with a diamond-cutting
pattern and engraving.
hot glass is formed in a press-mould with the
help of an automatic press-machine. Pressed
items have thicker sides, vertical lines caused
by the mould, smooth pattern, less of sparkle
and simpler shapes.
The Dyatkovo crystal differs
from Czech, French crystal, Gus-Crystal and
other factories items by artistic features of
shapes and diamond-cutting patterns.
Diamond-cutting pattern the "Russian Gem"
was already devised by the best masters of Russian
crystal in the XIX century, and till now it has
remained most complicated, beautiful and smart.
In the world glass practice it is called the "Russian
Gem". This pattern has become the firm style
of the Dyatkovo crystal plant.
The advantages of the Dyatkovo
produce, which can be taken for indisputable priorities,
original and very interesting in form
and composition design sets of handwork;
an extensive use of beautiful and complex
pictures made with the diamond engraving, demonstrating
the best characteristics of crystal: brilliance,
transparence, rainbow tinges inside crystal;
a variety of sets assortment for presents
and lots of items for interior;
Alongside with complex and expensive service-sets,
made by hand, and with details of architectural
decoration for cathedrals and palaces, we produce
a wide range of inexpensive glassware.
These advantages have no analogues among the
produce of other firms and make it possible to
better reveal the precious qualities of crystal,
such as sparkling, transparence, rainbow changes
of light inside the material. The diamond-cutting
pattern the "Russian Gem" was once developed
by the best masters of the Russian crystal still
in the XIX century, and it has remained the most
complicated, beautiful and festive so far.
Recommendations for care of crystal
clean dirty surface
with the help of any detergent for table-ware;
clean dry with
a fabric leaving no nap on the glass;
clean the outer
surface of big items (flower vases) with a means for glass
cleaning and then polish it with a fabric.
Clean crystal will sparkle like
a diamond in good light!